Baba Nanak University
WORLD MUSLIM SIKH FEDERATION
The decision by the Pakistan Government to open a University in recognition of one of its greatest countryman is also a great honour to the Sikh community world wide.
The new proposed university will be a centre of academic learning and excellence open to all men and women in Pakistan and from across the world irrespective of their race, colour, religion or nationality thus symbolising Guru Nanak’s teachings of community cohesion to make an inclusive society and just world possible . Integrity, respect and trust between different communities would lead to dignity for all people.
To our parent communities-Hindus and Muslims the 5th Nanak made this loud and clear:
Let Muslims rediscover the truth that the essence of religious practice is compassion and its goal, the purification of soul, and political utilitarianism is foreign to Islam as such, and let the Hindus concede that Islam thus understood , is as respectable and ceremoniously pure as the flowers, the silk, the deerskin and the butter fat:
|ਮੁਸਲਮਾਣੁ ਮੋਮ ਦਿਲਿ ਹੋਵੈ ॥ ਅੰਤਰ ਕੀ ਮਲੁ ਦਿਲ ਤੇ ਧੋਵੈ ॥|
|Musalmāṇ mom ḏil hovai. Anṯar kī mal ḏil ṯė ḏẖovai.|
|To be Muslim is to be kind-hearted, and wash away pollution from within the heart.|
2. Mission statement
To provide a modern university of prestige and academic excellence which will be regarded as the Oxford and Cambridge of South East Asia.
The WMSF proposes that the name of the University should be one of the following three:
- Guru Nanak International University or
- Baba Nanak International University or
- Nanak International University
In Guru Granth Sahib reference to our Satguru is either Guru Nanak or Baba Nanak or just Nanak and it is crucial that we do not add any thing else to that name.
A short name would be user friendly and Nanak University may be the most appropriate.
4 .Layout of Nankana Sahib
His Excellency President Musharaf had asked the Sikhs to turn Nankana Sahib into a well planned urban city. WMSF strongly believes that the flat terrain of Nanakana Sahib is similar to Chandigarh and it would be appropriate to adopt the Chandigarh urban plan for Nanakana Sahib so that development of second most beautiful city in Pakistan based on grid system can start at the outset.
WMSF proposes that Janam Asthan and all sites relating to the life of Baba Nanak be set in a grid system and properly landscape and this area be called Sector 1. The university should be called sector 2 . And other sectors can be named as the town grows for eg the bus and coach station should be in Sector 3. But the help of the Planning Department will be required so that development takes place in orderly way and strict planning control is maintained at all times something which the local planning authorities can learn from the manner in which Islamabad was developed.
Millions of pilgrims and visitors will be visiting Nankana Sahib in future. Thousand of students will be passing there and the growth of the town will bring manufacturing and service industry and business as well as employment. It is therefore important that we plan the town as the most beautiful place to live, receive and accommodate everyone with all the facilities and amenities of a Western city.
Fortunately Nankana Sahib is a small town and it would not be difficult to relocate its people when re planning the town. In fact Sikhs did this in Kericho Kenya . They built new accommodation for the locals which was vastly superior to their existing accommodation . When it was built the people were relocated and their old homes then demolished.
5. Structure of the University
A campus university is suggested based on faculty systems with administrative block in the centre and other university buildings and departments around it. The layout proposed is on grid system comprising some 12 sectors with adequate landscaping , parking , gardens , tree lined roads and pathways to respect the environment by keeping it green while providing conducive atmosphere for learning .Please see draft outline site model.
- a. The University
A university is normally set up by an Act of parliament or Government Ordinance. It is vitally important that this status is established and if a draft act is required the lawyers of WMSF would be happy to submit it for approval by the parliament.
- b. The University seal.
This should be an emblem bearing the insignia EK OUN KAAR coined by Guru Nanak meaning there is one and only one god who is the creator and sustainer of all existence..
- c. The university will be made as follows:
A student population of 5000 men and women at the beginning growing gradually to around 10,000
- d. Senate House – the Administrative centre and housing the University Library and the Vice chancellor’s home just as the University of London Senate House.
- e. University Union Building to incorporate, health centre, Students Union , Cafeteria, common rooms, student shop ,TV room, refectory and meeting rooms for various clubs. Same as University of London Union.
- f. University Newspaper
The students union will also publish monthly university newspaper to be called Patti – derived from the patti on which Nanak was to read and write
- g. University Sports centre
This will provide a swimming pool on Olympic scale , a gym , squash courts, sports hall and indoor cricket hall.
- h. Guru Nanak University Debating Club
This will be set up on the same basis as the Oxford Union and Cambridge Union debating clubs which produce world leaders. The debating club shall be a training ground for future leaders as they will debate with world leaders and personalities who will be invited to participate in the debates with the students on important topics whether political or economic.
- i. Halls of Residence
Since this will be a campus university accommodation will be required to accommodate students in the campus.
Halls of residence of around 400 students is suggested and at least 12 such halls are required . Each will cater for accommodation, cafeteria, dining hall,TV room and reading room , common rooms, laundry, staff accommodation, warden’s accommodation, offices, porter’s lodge, and squash court. An example is University of London International Hall.
Each hall of residence should be named as follows:
- Baba Nanak hall
- Nanak 2 Hall
- Nanak 3 Hall
- Nanak 4 Hall
- Nanak5 Hall
- Nanak 6 Hall
- Nanak7 Hall
- Nanak8 Hall
- Nanak 9 Hall
- Nanak 10 Hall
These are named after the 10 Gurus and 2 halls including women halls will be named after the women
- Mata Tripta hall
- Bebe Nanaki hall
Which hall do live in? Answer: I am at Nanak 5 She is at Bebe Nanaki . he is at Nanak 10. These names will be user friendly for the students as well as reminding them of Baba Nanak’s birth place.
- j. Prayer halls
There will be prayer halls for Muslim and Sikh students respectively
- k. Accommodation for staff
A block of 50 , 2 bedrooms flats need to be erected and 4 such blocks will provide accommodation for nearly 200 professors or dons. Additionally each hall will have 6 dons thus providing accommodation for additional 72 dons making a total of 272. This accommodation will be of a quality superior to that enjoyed by dons at Oxford |and Cambridge but will be a selling point for attracting the best staff to the university.
Each block should be named as follows:
- Mullah Qutab-ud-din hall
- Rae Bhoe Hall
- Rai Bhular Hall
- Kalu Bedi Hall
- l. Sports grounds
These will include cricket , hockey, tennis and football . The cricket ground will be open to all the local youth from local schools who wish to play cricket or tennis Expert training will be given to youngsters so that they may become best cricketers in Pakistan and internationally with the credit going to Baba Nanak University.
The support grounds and the swimming pool should be built on national scale so that they can be used as appropriate venue if Pakistan hosts say the Asian games or the Olympics in future.
Likewise the cricket ground with its pavilion should be modelled on the Mohali cricket ground so that it can become a national venue for international and national cricket matches.
- k. Botanical gardens
Guru Nanak’s sandaliya forest the home of his childhood may not be there but the botanical gardens and adjoining forest will continue to blossom with flowers of spring as they did during his childhood .
They will provide fauna and flora for the botanists and a quiet corner for romantic stroll for the lovers of fresh air and nature.
- l. University lecture halls
Each department or faculty will have couple of lecture halls or lecture theatres. In addition it is proposed to have central lecture halls comprising of some 6 lecture theatres.
- m. University bookshop and shopping parade
This will provide academic bookshop so that all student and staff needs are met at the campus rather than going to Lahore as well as shops for local needs in the campus.
6. FACULTIES SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS
- a Medical and Dental school including School of Pharmacy together with number of lecture theatres and departmental libraries.
- b Guru Nanak teaching Hospital
Guru Nanak teaching hospital will need to be set up to enable medical students to complete their studies as well as providing an important resources for research and facility for treating the sick in the local district. This hospital should be set up in Sector 4
This hospital should be high tech hospital providing facilities for research., It is hoped that Sikh doctors and specialists will come from all over the world to give voluntary service in the hospital thus promoting the hospital and provide service to their fellow citizens as sacha sauda.
Nanak eye hospital should be set up within the main hospital. The United Nations would normally give full funding for the eye hospital.
There will be no shortage of expertise from abroad coming to teach or treat in hospitals on voluntary basis but the only thing that would discourage them would be lack of proper accommodation. It is therefore vital that additional accommodation be built outside the campus area.
- c. Engineering faculty to include
- i. Civil Engineering Dept,
- ii. Mechanical Engineering Dep’t
- iii. Electrical engineering dept
- iv. Physics department.
It is proposed to affiliate engineering department with Imperial College London.
- d Computer science department or School
The school of computer science shall be the leading school in Pakistan in training students in information technology. The university should be linked to Microsoft World who should be asked to develop and fund this school as they are doing in Bombay.
- e languages and South east Asian Studies department
Punjabi in both Gurmukhi and Shahimukhi script will be taught Provision for language laboratory will be set up . The language lab will be open to students from local schools who may wish to learn Punjabi or other languages .This should be linked to University of London School of Oriental and African Studies.
- f Music Department
Guru Granth sahib is divided according to different classical rags. Guru Arjan gave 25 new rags to the Indian classical music and there are 60 rags in Granth Sahib. Sikh musicology will be taught in this department thus enhancing the musical prowess of Pakistan already rich in musical talent. WMSF will be happy to assist in setting it up
- g Social science Department
The following social science disciplines will need to be taught
- International relations
- Political science
Landscaping will be an important part of designing the campus university as well as Nanakana Sahib as we need to respect the environment and keep it green. This will be supplemented by keeping it green. .This will be supplemented by green lawns as at Oxford and Cambridge. Trees will be planted along all the roads and pathways.
8. Campus area
We anticipate that a total area of some 2500 acres will need to be allocated for this project ( see model plan) , if a prestigious world institution is to be built not for tomorrow but for future generations .WMSF invites this area to be confirmed .This area should be transferred to Guru Nanak International University and registered in its name because it will become a permanent asset of the university.
It is not uncommon to see that Universities invariably run out of space and then have to move to other areas creating a number of campuses. Punjab Univ Lahore had to move into 2 campuses. But the University was planned in 1883. It is therefore imperative that maximum area is allocated to the university campus so that we think 100 years ahead in case further expansion is anticipate such as space explorations ..Mistakes of other old universities must not be repeated here.
The area allocate for this project will need to be demarcated for feasibility studies of the land and also for architects to start their job.
9. Support Staff
University will need to be manned at all times by maintenance staff in case of any breakdown of any services such as electricity, and computers or for maintenance works. Security staff will need to be employed and full time care taker will look after the premises. .Accommodation for non academic staff will need to be arranged outside the campus. It is hoped that government will also build some residential quarters in the town and perhaps allocate land to expatriates if they wish build their own villas.
10. Postage stamp
To commemorate the opening of the university a postage stamp should be issued to celebrate its first intake of students.
11. Architectural plans and 3 dimension video
If the above outline structure of the university is accepted, the WMSF will assist the government to find a global firm of architects and structural engineers to draw up final plans for planning approval and building control. The architects and structural engineers will provide building specifications on which the cost of the project will be based, and tenders should be invited from construction companies for erection thereof.
A 3D video will show how the university will look when completed and also of Nankana Sahib will look like in future.
12. Town and Gown
The university at all times must be owned by the people of Nankana Sahib and its districts. This will be made possible if the locals are allowed to be involved and given opportunity to use its faculties for the benefit of the public. The university’s swimming pool, sports ground and training . as well as language labs will be open to pupils from other schools and this will also enhance the school standards.
It is vitally important that the people who benefit most are the people who live in Nanakana Sahib district. Scholarships will be provided for the poor and needy and places will be reserved for students from Nanakana Sahib as well as Sikh students from India and elsewhere.
14. University Council or Governing Body
The Governing Body will be the sovereign body of the University and legally responsible for its management. It should consists of 33 Governors, of whom 18 are lay Governors. It appoints the Vice chancellor and has the final say in constitutional, financial and academic matters but may delegate many of its powers to standing Committees. On any academic matters, the Governors are required to consult the Academic Board before any final decision.
16. Membership of the Governors
Membership of the Governors should comprise:
- a representative of the District of Nanakana Sahib
- representative from the central government preferably Minister of Education.
- Governor of the Punjab
- representative members of the staff (Academic Board and academic staff and non-teaching staff)
- representative members of past students and present students
- 2 Sikh representative from the UK, 2 from the USA, 2 from Canada and 2 from India , I from Africa, and 1 from Australia and New Zealand. and 2 from Pakistan.
- A representative from the Government of the Punjab.
- President of Pakistan Sikh Gurudwara Parbandak committee
- Members of the Evacuee trust property Board. Board.
The Chancellor of the University should be the Head of State of Pakistan . The Vice Chancellor must be a distinguished academic of any nationality who will the administrative head of the university. This post should be advertised worldwide.
17. Standing orders of the governors
Please see schedule attached at the end of this report for procedures of meetings. Standing Orders to be prepared.
18. Sub Committees or standing committees
Some of these will be as follows to assist smother running of the university:
- Finance and General Purposes Committeeaa1
- Audit Committee
- Academic Board Executive Committee
- Computer policy committee
- Quality Assurance committee
- Research committee
- Library policy committee
- Building committee
- Student services committee
- University research and ethic committee
- Safety committee
- House committee
- Remuneration committee
- Teaching committee
- Scholarship sub committee
- Investment sub committee
- Academic Board Executive committee
- Academic and related staff joint committee
- Working Party on fees
- Science and Social Degree committee
- Arts degree committee
19. World bank funding
Government of Pakistan may obtain funding from world bank for this noble and esteemed project as it promotes community cohesion but more importantly because under the UNESCO charter the government is preserving and protecting heritage buildings associated with Baba Nanak which are over 100 years old as well as promoting his teachings with a view to communal harmony with its minority community.
20. Financial and development committee
To ensure successful completion of this project, and ensure proper financial accountability, and responsibility, the Evacuee Trust Board will no doubt set up a Financial and development committee comprising of 5 people 2 of them from the UK and USA. Any payment should be approved and signed by all 5 members of the committee to avoid any fraud No payment should be made until the works are independently supervised and payment authorised.
26 It is hoped that with the setting up a university in the order aforementioned it will provide all the facilities which students enjoy at any top university in the world like Oxbridge , London and Harvard .It is for this reason that a campus area of 2500 acres will be needed to provide a spacious and aesthetically beautiful university like Stanford. This will help to create a prestigious university of excellence both in giving qualifications and educating our future generations in the true spirit of the teaching of Guru Nanak: Truth is high but higher still is truthful living.
The town of Nankana Sahib should grow not like Kabul and Khandar but like Islamabad and Chandigarh and the University itself will create huge employment for the local people and will be its central focus.
If the above project is to be embarked on seriously the following logistics will need to be planned and followed so that the project is completed within a period of 3 years smoothly and satisfactorily:
- Architects plans building specifications and planning approvals be put in place. And feasibility study of the allocated land be carried out. Government should sanction funds to instruct a professional architects who work globally and are conversant with urban and university developments.. The architects will use the concept model do design the buildings in their respective places.
- Allocation of funds or budget to be confirmed by the government . It is likely that the funding may come in phases and thus project would proceed in phases. The total funding required cannot be established until building specifications are provided and this will in turn depend on the plans being ready
- Constitutional status of the setting up of the university be put in place
- An area of 2500 aces be allocated for this project in Nanakana Sahib and specifically marked and transferred to the name of the university as it will become an asset of he university
- Urban plan for Nanakana Sahib be approved. which will be the adoption of Chandigarh urban plan.
- Utilities such a gas, electricity, water and sewage to be provided by the authorities.
- Costing of project should be obtained and tenders should be invited from international construction companies. Tenders should be offered to 3 or 4 companies to reduce the risk of bad workmanship and also corruption.
- Recruitment of staff and admission of first intake of students as well as the Council of University be appointed provisionally pending completion of the project.
It will be a win win situation for each and everyone. But the biggest winner will be the Government of Pakistan for taking up such a noble cause and winning the confidence of the Sikh community worldwide.
Schedule continues after this overview of the proposed site.
STANDING ORDERS OF THE GOVERNORS
Order of business and procedure at meetings of the Governors and their committees.
1) At the last meeting in each session, Governors shall elect the President, the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of Governors for the following session on the recommendation of the Nominations Committee.
2) In each session there shall be at least three Ordinary Meetings of the Governors, to be held, normally s on dates approved by the Governors at the last meeting in the previous section.
3) The President or Chairman may at any time summon an Extraordinary Meeting of the Governors and is required to do so on the receipt of a written requisition to the effect signed by three Governors.
4) A summons to attend a Meeting and a paper signifying the business which is to transacted signed by the Clerk to the Governors shall be posted to every Governor four clear days before the day on which the meeting is appointed to be held.
5) No business shall be transacted at a meeting other than that specified in the Agenda Paper, except any matter of urgency brought up in accordance with the Standing Orders of the Governors.
6) Matters which the Chairman of the Meeting considers urgent, and which have arisen too late to be specified in the Agenda Paper may be bought before the Governors with the consent of the majority of the Governors present.
7) The Chairman may takes such action of the Governors as he/she may deem to be expedient after consultation with the Deputy Chairman and the Master in any matter being, in his/her opinion either urgent (but not of sufficient importance as to justify a special Meeting of the Governors) or non-contentious, and shall report to the Governors in their next Meeting.
8) The Governors may adjourn a Meeting to any day or hour (as they think fit) but no business other than as is provided by Standing Order shall be transacted at an Adjourned Meeting except such as was set out in the Agenda Paper for the Meeting of which it is an adjournment.
9) When a Meeting is adjourned notice of the Adjourned Meeting shall be sent to all Governors.
1) ORDER OF BUSINESS
10. The Order of Business at every Ordinary Meeting of the Governors shall be as follows:-
a. Minutes of previous Meeting and Matters Arising. b. Communications and Statements c. Reports of Standing Committees and of the Academic Board d. Reports of ad hoc Committees e. Other Business, including motions of which notice has been given, except those for which other order is prescribed. f. Sealing of Documents
11. The quorum for a Meeting of Governors shall be eleven, of whom at least six shall be Governors who are not members of staff nor students
12. The Chairman of the Meeting may, with the consent of the Governors present, vary the order of the business on the Agenda Paper.
13. The Minutes of the previous Meeting shall be taken as read, with a view to confirmation, provided that a copy of the Minutes shall have been sent to each Governor at least twenty-four hours previously.
14. No Motion or Discussion shall be allowed upon Minutes except as to their accuracy, and any objection upon that ground must be made by way of Motion, of which notice need not be given.
15. Every Report of a Committee shall be signed by the Chairman or by another member being a Governor, and shall be divided into sections lettered or numbered consecutively, each of which shall deal with a distinct subject matter. Each section shall include a brief statements of the facts necessary for the information of the Governors and of the reasons for the action, if any, recommended by the Committee.
16. The Governor presenting a Report shall move “that the Report be received.” The Chairman of the committee or other Member presenting a Report shall be held to move each recommendation contained in it.
17. When a Report has been received the Chairman of the Governors shall put the recommendation individually. If the Governors agree with the recommendation, it shall then become a Resolution of the Governors. The rest of the Report shall stand upon the authority of the Committee.
18. When the report of a Committee is under consideration at a meeting of the governors any Governor may ask for information with regard to any matter contained in the Report. Such question must be upon a matter either arising directly out of the Report of germane to the work of the Committee concerned.
2. NOTICES OF MOTION
19. Every Notice of Motion shall be in writing signed by the Governor giving the Notice. In order to be placed on the Agenda for a Meeting such a Notice of Motion must be received by the Clerk to the Governors at latest by the first post eight days before the Meeting.
20. If a Motion, notice of which is specified in the Agenda Paper, be not moved either by the Member who has given the notice of by some other Member, when it comes on in due course, it shall be considered as dropped and shall not be moved without fresh notice.
3. ORDER IN DEBATES
To Amend the Motion
21. Whenever an amendment upon an original Motion has been moved and seconded, no second or subsequent amendment shall be moved until the first amendment shall have been disposed of. If an amendment be carried, the Motion as amended shall take the place of the original Motion, and shall become the question upon which any further amendment which is in order may be moved.
22. All acts of the Governors shall be done and all question coming or arising before the Governors shall be decided by the majority of such Governors as are present and vote, except in the cases for which special provision is made in these Orders.
23. The voting shall be by show of hands, unless a ballot is required by a majority of those present or by the Chairman.
24. The Chairman of a Meeting shall be entitled to vote in the first instance, and in case of an equality of votes, may give a casting vote.
25. Minutes of the Proceedings of every Meeting of the Governors shall be drawn up, and shall be confirmed at the next ensuing Meeting and signed by the Chairman. Copies of the Unconfirmed Minutes shall be sent to all Governors.
6. COMMITTEES OF THE GOVERNORS
26. The Governors may from time to time appoint Standing or Ad hoc Committees, for either Advisory or Executive purposes, consisting of such persons at the Governors may think fit. The Governors may if they consider if desirable grant such Committees the power to co-opt a limited number of persons.
27. The Governors shall at the last Ordinary Meeting in each session appoint the Nominations Committee for the following session and shall at the same Meeting appoint the other Standing Committees for the following session on the recommendation of the Nominations Committee. Every Standing Committee shall hold office until the 30th September.or end of academic year
28. Governors shall approve the Terms of Reference of each Committee and may at any time amend them either on the recommendation of the Committee or otherwise. The Terms of Reference of each Committee shall be circulated to the members with the agenda paper for the first meeting of the Committee in each session and shall normally be the first item of business at that meeting.
29. The Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Governors shall be ex-officio members of every Committee of the Governors with the exception of the Audit committee.
30. The existence of a vacancy or of vacancies on a Committee shall not affect the validity of its proceedings.
31. Every Meeting of a Committee shall be summoned by the Clerk to the Governors of his/her delegate who shall send to each member of the Committee an Agenda Paper so that the same may in ordinary course of post be delivered at the address of each member if possible at least forty-eight hours before the hour of the Meeting. Except in matters of urgency (of which the chairman of the Committee shall judge) no business shall be transacted at any meeting of the Committee unless its nature be set out on the Agenda Paper.
32. The Chairman of any Committee, after consultation with the Master, may take such action on behalf of his/her Committee in any matter coming within the terms of their Order of Reference being, in his/her opinion, either urgent (but no of sufficient importance as to justify a special Meeting of the Committee) or non-contentious, as he/she may deem to be expedient and shall report to the Committee at their next Meeting.
33. The Quorum of any Committee shall be one third of its membership unless otherwise prescribed in its Terms of Reference.
34. Each Committee shall, at its first Meeting, or at such time as Governors may from time to time direct, appoint a Chairman; except that Governors shall appoint the Chairman of the Nominations Committee when they appoint the membership of that Committee. When presiding, the chairman shall be entitled to vote in the first instance, and in case of an equality of votes, may give a casting vote. He/she shall sign the Minutes when they have been passed by the Committee. He/she shall be ex-officio a member of every Sub-Committee appointed by his/her Committee.
35. In the absence of the Chairman of the Committee a member of the Committee chose by a majority of the members present shall preside at the Meeting. When presiding, he/she shall have the same powers and rights as are assigned in Standing Order to the chairman when presiding.
36. Subject to these Standing Orders and to any other orders hereafter made by the Governors, each Committee shall regulate its own procedures.
37. The Clerk to the Governors shall cause to be placed on the Agenda Paper of each Committee notice of all business which requires to be brought before such Committee and of all business of which notice in writing signed by a member of such Committee shall have been delivered at his/her office in due time
38. Every matter brought before a Committee shall be decided by a majority of those present and voting. The voting shall be by show of hands, unless a ballot is required by a majority of those present, or by the Chairman of the Meeting.
39. The Minutes shall be made of the proceedings of every Committee, but, if any part of such proceedings be adequarely set out in a report, such parts may be entered in the Minutes by reference to the report. The Minutes shall be circulated and duly entered in a book or file kept for the purpose.
40. At every meeting of a Committee except the first in each the Minutes of the previous Meeting shall be read as the first business after the Chairman has taken his/her seat, and if accurate shall be signed by the Chairman. The Minutes may be taken as read, provided that they shall have been circulated to all members.
41. No Motion or Discussion shall be allowed on the Minutes except as to their accuracy, and any objection on that ground must be made by Motion.
42. The Minutes of every Committee shall be open for the inspection of any Governor during office hours.
43. All Committees of the Governors shall report to the Governors. Any Committee or similar body reporting on any matter that falls within the terms of reference of another Committee shall afford such other Committee an opportunity of making a concurrent report.
44. The Report of a Committee shall be presented and moved by the Chairman of the Committee, or in his/her absence by some other member of the Committee, who was present at the meeting of the Committee and who shall have been deputed by the Committee or shall be called upon by the Chairman of the Governors to present the Report.
45. Any Committee may appoint one or more Sub-Committees for any purpose within its terms of reference which in its opinion can be more usefully carried out by a Sub-Committee. A Sub-Committee may be appointed for such time and subject to such limitations as to report and otherwise as the Committee appointing it may from time to time think fit.
46. Every Sub-Committee, unless previously discharged, shall cease to exist at the same time as the Committee appointing it.
(i) General Provisions
47. Any two or more committees may communicate or confer together by mutual agreement as to any matter of joint interest.
48. No Committee shall, unless specially authorised by the Governors to do so, communicate with any outside person or authority except through the officer of the College duly authorised for the purpose, except that the Audit Committee shall have the right to consult directly with the internal and external auditors.
COMMON SEAL OF THE UNIVERSITY
49. The Clerk shall be responsible to Governors for the safekeeping of the Common Seal of the College which shall not be affixed to any document except in the presence of two Governors and in pursuance of a resolution of the Governors. The Clerk shall keep a seal book in which shall be entered the date of each occasion on which the seal is affixed, the nature of the document, the date of the authority for sealing and the signatures of the two Governors. When a document is sealed on a standing authority of the Governors, its sealing shall be reported to the next meeting of Governors.
SUSPENSION OR AMENDMENT OF STANDING ORDERS
50. No Standing Order shall be suspended without the consent of a majority of the whole of the Governors.
51. Any alteration in these Standing Orders must form the subject of a Notice of Motion, such Notice to be issued not less than twenty-one days before the Meeting of Governors at which it is to be considered.